TEA-0302-WES

 

WESTERN

THEATRE AND

PERFORMANCE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

University Course

Designed & Delivered by

Zachàr Laskewicz


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

©NIGHTSHADES PRESS 2008

music-theatre-language ebooks

Noordstraat 1/3, 9000 Ghent (BELGIUM)

 

This ebook remains the original copyright of Zachàr Alexander LASKEWICZ who delivered this course at the Chinese Culture University in Taipei in 2003. If use is made of the contents of this work, please reference the work appropriately and inform the author at the following address :

zachar@nachtschimmen.eu

 

Reference Code :

0302-WES

 

Correlating Webpage : http://www.nachtschimmen.eu/zachar/teacher/0302_WES.htm

 


The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

 

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

                                                                             

 

Keywords and concepts:

·         Primarily for intermediate to upper-intermediate students of English

·         Theatre & Drama critical reading skills

·         Ancient Greek & Roman theatre

·         Theatre in the Middle-Ages

·         Elizabethan Theatre

·         Modern theatre

·         Performance skills

 

Timetable:

3 periods per week, divided as follows -

1.  Lecture on major topic;

2.  Tutorial session discussing readings;

3.  Play-reading and performance workshops.

 

 

Unit Textbooks:

Manual One - Selected Fragments from Plays

Manual Two - Selected Documentation on Theatre

Unit Description Booklet - Course description, lecture notes and information concerning assignments and presentations

 

Basic Structure:

This course is given on a semester basis and has a very specific agenda as far as the lectures, tutorials and workshops are concerned; the intention is to provide the students with a broad critical and practical approach to theatre and performance in the 20th century.  At the end of semester a performance is organised which includes a selection of theatrical fragments, sketches and/or improvisations by the students as planned during the semester.  This unit does not have an exam as such; assessment is based on a presentation or an essay in addition to a short performance.  Preparation for and contribution to the tutorials, lecture attendance and active participation in the workshops also play a significant role.  The student is also expected to present an essay of around 1000 to 1500 words on a specific topic mentioned in the unit description booklet mentioned above. 

 

Course Description:

This course is intended to give students at an upper-intermediate to advanced level English a chance to appreciate Western theatrical literature and performance theory.  The intention is to provide the student with theoretical and critical tools to analyse Western theatre and drama works explored in the tutorial sessions.  In addition it provides them with the chance to perform through a series of workshops.  Assessment involves for a degree a performance-based element which is negotiated during the semester with the professor.  Course material consists of two manuals, and one unit content booklet containing course information such as suggestions for assignments.  The first of the two manuals contains a selection of readings from important plays, and the second descriptive papers concerning theoretical and historical background material.  The student is expected to read the texts in his or her own time, and to bring up specific issues pertaining to the theatre texts in tutorial sessions, issues which are introduced in the unit content booklet.  Half of the time spent with the professor is used discussing the theoretical material, while the rest of the time is spent reading the theatrical texts.  Information about the topics to be discussed in the tutorials, the possible essay subjects and other vital information is included in a separate document.  In addition to the tutorials a number of specific open lectures are given on specific topics related to areas in Western theatre.  Inclusion of the viewing of performances and field trips is a possibility. The performance-based aspect of the assessment is negotiated in small groups or as individuals performing specific aspects for production at the end of the semester.  If the student is not able to perform for personal reasons, a one-act written play is acceptable concerning a topic brought up in the lectures with a half description of what the play is about.  AThe students are also required to complete a single essay to be completed in English on specific topics selected from a list or negotiated with the professor.  This list is included at the end of discussion notes that form part of the student manual or are provided weekly to the students to allow them to prepare for the coming lecture.

 

Requirements:

Students are expected to attend all lectures, workshops and tutorials.  If more than three classes are missed unannounced the students grade could be affected.  If, on the other hand, the student contacts the lecturer on the beforehand, negotiation is possible.  Forms of communication include post, email, personal discussion and via the telephone.  Information about basic assessment procedures is included below. 

 

Assessment:

Grades are determined as follows:

 

Attendance:                                       10%

Participation in classroom activities:      20%

Essay or presentation:                         35%

Performance:                                     35%

 


Weekly Plan:

The following list contains the general structure of the semester  

 

1.       Introduction and Basic Terminology

 

2.       Dramatic Texts as Discourse and Theatre Conventions

 

3.       The Comedy and the Tragedy: origins in Ancient Greek &     

          RomanTheatre

 

4.       Critical Reading Skills: an introduction to reading plays

 

5.       Mediaeval Theatre: morality plays

 

6.       Writing about Theatre: an introduction to writing about performance

 

7.       Theatre in the Rennaissance: Elizabethan Theatre & Shakespeare

 

8.       Key Speeches & Dialogues

 

9.       Theatre of the 19th Century

 

10.     Signs and Symbols in Drama & Theatre

 

11.     Modern Theatre

    

12.     Direction & Design: an introduction

 

14.     Brechtian Theatre

 

     15.      Theatre of the Absurd

 

 

 

 

 

 


The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

LECTURER'S NOTES: Lesson 2

                                                                             

 

Introduction to Western Theatre

 

Lesson 1 Lecture Notes

 

P1-1

 

- Brief introduction to the course.

- Describe structure of the lessons.

- Readings will be provided and have to be prepared.

- In this course COMMUNICATION is a given and students are expected to participate actively; if you don't want to, then it's better to stop.

 

P1-2

 

- Make list of students names, and a ask them to make a brief description.

 

P1-3

 

- Go through course description with the students.

- describe the course assessment procedures.

 

P1-4

 

- List major terms important for theatre vocabulary:

Theatre, Drama, Play, Performance, Acts, Dialogues, Monologues, Key Speeches, 'Beats'.

- What is a play?: Complex set of instructions for groups of performers who work together to produce a piece of theatre; a live event on stage in front of real people. It is far more than words on a page.

- Theatre conventions: agreed upon rules between audience and performers.

- Theatre is considered to emerge from ancient human ritual; indeed seeing theatre is a ritual in itself.

- How easy it is for us to accept conventions; difficulty of film.

- The role of 'director' and 'playwright'; how do they differ?

- Role of director in 'conTEXTualising' the play. Role of playwright in making the dramatic TEXT.

- Theatre demands attention; less passive than film, often confrontational: heightened behaviour in the sense of ritual.

 

 

 

 

P2-1

 

Tutorial Based on the subject matter: what is theatre and what is a play?

 

THEATRE CONVENTIONS

-4  How have the students experienced theatre in the past.

-5  Statement: theatre as a strange ritual [based on agreement between audience and performers] - what do the students think of this?

-6  How do the students experience Western theatre in terms of their own experiences.

-7  What are contrasting 'agreements' on what is theatre and what is not?

-8  Theatre includes many other forms of human activity, including juggling, acrobatics, some kinds of sports, music, mime and so on.

 

P2-2

 

THEATRE IN SOCIETY

-9  What role does theatre play in society?

-10 Is it different now to what it was in the past?

 

P2-3

 

WHY DO WE CREATE THEATRE?

-11 What are some of the major reasons people write plays?

-12 Function of art & theatre; clarifying order & chaos, making sense of disorder & inconsequential events of life.

 

P2-4

 

TERMINOLOGY

-13 What is the difference between theatre and drama, between a performance and a play?

-14 What is the difference between a playwright and a director? What do they do? What is their input.

-15 What is in effect the creative difference between a writer of novels or poems and the writers of plays? Who plays roles in giving the text meaning? Do texts really belong only to playwrights?

-16 What role does the 'audience' play? Who are they? Are they always the same in all forms of theatre? Are they also bound by conventions?

 

 

 

 

 

 

P3-1

 

What is a Workshop?

 

- What is a workshop? Which theatre schools have used it; how it can help us to understand theatre which is a highly visual medium. What it can teach us about performance.

- Concept introduced by Brecht and adopted into Western theatre, particularly experimental theatre.

 

P3-2

 

Basic Improvisations

 

- Basing scriptwriting on short activities. Divide up into groups of two and organise short scenes only with a brief encounter between two people.

 

P3-3

 

What can we learn from Workshops?

 

 


Play Reading Skills

 

- Difference between reading a text and watching one: you can`t (normally) rewind, full forward etc.; you have to go at the pace of the performance.

- It is impossible to mistake a theatrical text for any other.

- One has to consider how the audience is treated by the playwright; what were the conventions behind the theatrical traditions which created these works.

- What are the dynamics of plays; how are they structured.

- Importance of visualisation in interpretation.

- Contrasting types of plays in the twentieth century: television and radio plays.

- Film versions of plays; how does this contrast.

- Using scene descriptions to construct an image of what happens in the play (use examples)

PLOT: summary of a play`s incidents OR organisation of meaningful events, i.e. Overall structure of play.

Structural elements: the beginning, middle, end; exposition - setting forth of info about earlier ev ents/motivations - the amount of exposition required depends on the POINT OF ATTACK, the moment at which the action begins. Shakespeare typically uses early points of attack, i.e. the action is chronological.  This is not necessarily always so.  Greek tragedies use late points of attack.

- The action of a play depends on our knowledge of the past and thus a lot of exposition is required; methods of exposition vary immensely - Euripedes uses monologues, discussionofthe past, dance and song, and also flashbacks.

INCITING INCIDENCE - name for the CAUSE around which complications develop.

- The substance of complications is ften DISCOVERY in some form. Such discoveries may involve objects, persons, facts or values. Other means may be used to precipitate action - natural/mechanical disaster. Series of complications result in CLIMAX.  Analysis of drama: working out which kinds of units are used to develop drama and how these help the work to realize is theme or develop its suspense, catharsis and resolution.

The End - also known as resolution and denoument.

- The `ideal play`

The mode of discourse which is traditionally agreed upon and accepted by a western audience

It has 3 or 4 acts

- Introduces a set of human characters with a conflict

- This conflict brings about complications.

-These complications are resolved in a denouement (resolution)

Analysing the structure of a play:

1. How is the exposition handled.

2. Discover how scenes and acts are brought to climaxes in comparison to the whole.

3. Think about the manner and the nature of the plot (denoument)

[Hedda Gabler and The Cherry Garden are good examples of ideal plays for this type of analysis]

-Audience theory: compare the difference between the role played by the `reader` and the `viewer` (audience member: audience theory)

- Language use -soliloquy, grand speeches and garbled nonsense.  What is the playwright communicating with the WAY he is making use of language? Does it communicate extra-linguistically (such as Lucky`s speech).

- Space: the unwritten/partly transcribed thing separating performance etc. What does the use of specified space tell us about the play? What can be left to interpretation?

- How does the playwright treat temporality? Why? Is it being used as a tool to aid the narrative or character development, or in some other way.

- How does the play resemble reality, and when does it not? Why?

- Work out how to divide text into scenes and acts.

- Drama is a special form with own unique characteristics separating it from other forms of literature.  `Theatre is the stuyd of what happens when `dramatic` texts are brought to life.  Dramatic texts are difficult to read, and it becomes a demanding task for any reader, because of the amount of creativity required from the reader

 

WORKSHOP

Play reading skills; contrasts between different types of plays

- Using scene descriptions to construct an image of what happens in the play (use examples)

 

 

The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

LECTURER'S NOTES: Lesson 2

                                                                             

 

P1-1

 

Topic 1: Introduction to theatre

- List major terms important for theatre vocabulary:

Theatre, Drama, Play, Performance, Acts, Dialogues, Monologues, Key Speeches, 'Beats'.

- What is a play?: Complex set of instructions for groups of performers who work together to produce a piece of theatre; a live event on stage in front of real people. It is far more than words on a page.

 

P1-2

 

Topic 2: Theatre Conventions

- Theatre conventions: agreed upon rules between audience and performers.

- Theatre is considered to emerge from ancient human ritual; indeed seeing theatre is a ritual in itself.

- How easy it is for us to accept conventions; difficulty of film.

- The role of 'director' and 'playwright'; how do they differ?

- Role of director in 'conTEXTualising' the play. Role of playwright in making the dramatic TEXT.

- Theatre demands attention; less passive than film, often confrontational: heightened behaviour in the sense of ritual.

 

P1-3

Topic 3: Ancient Greek Theatre

- INTRO - It has greatly influenced our contemporary understanding of drama and theatrical practice, and contemporary writers in all periods have been influenced in some way. How this is unusual and unique. Considered to be the source of Western theatre.

- ORIGIN - All plays written in the period between 500 and 400 B.C. All plays took place in Athens as part of two major festivals devoted to the Ancient Greek god Dionysis. Compare the roles of 'Apollo' and 'Dionysis' and how this relates to origin. Originally completed as part of rituals, which relates to how we experience now in some ways. These ceremonies were known as 'City [or great] Dionysis' [late March/April] and the 'Lenaea' [January]. As well as major ceremonies in Athens, there were also local celebrations which the playwrights wrote for.

- WRITERS - the work of 4 playwrights have survived, and only a few of the many hundreds of plays actually written. How they were preserved and have therefore become part of our history too (changes could have been made to them as was the practice). These playwrights are Sophocles, Euripides, Aeschylus, & Aristophanes.

- GENRES - Two major genres were accepted and required at the particular ritual occasions; comedies and tragedies. Tragedies were also accompanied by shorter works known as sartyrs which were intended to work as light relief to the heavy thematically dense tragic works. Writers were either specialised in tragedies or comedies and appear to have only wrote them as such. The topics of plays were mostly about mythical events which is appropriate to the ritual task for Dionysis they were intended to perform. Comedies were sometimes mythical and sometimes involving everyday life.

 

P1-4

 

PRE-PRODUCTION - Circumstances entirely different to what we expect today. Playwrights were chosen for specific purposes and this was their profession. The person responsible for organising the 'City Dionysis', for example, was chosen by chance, known as archon. Playwrights would then apply to him to write their plays which they had a period of six months to do. For City Dionysis usually 3 tragedies were written and a 'satyr', whereas comedies were generally presented one at a time. For this event 3 tragic writers competed with one another, whereas 3 or 5 comedy writers.

PRODUCTION - didaskalos was the term for a writer which means 'teacher' or 'trainer'. This relates to the original function of theatre to train the dancers and performers who would make up the chorus. The writer, therefore, was initially associated with the producer and director of works which were in turn written for specific theatres (rather than general performance places), although some comedies were performed in a number of different arenas.

THE PLAYS - Very different to how contemporary plays are written. Chorus which comments upon the action. How the gods influence daily life of mythical individuals. Stories taken from the epics by Homer (such as Odysseus) of which only a few have survived. The plays were written in a metre and were often intended to be sung, and therefore in translation this element is lost. How contemporary playwrights have tried to recapture this.

THE THEATRE - The acropolis in Athens. What we see today there is the result of changes far later than the theatre was actually performed there. Development occurred as early evidence suggests, but the sort of theatre the works that have survived were originally performed on are illustrated as follows:

[slide/illustration from LEY, G. pg. 12.

Theatres were built on a hill. The 'orchestra' was initially a dancing place, whereas the 'theatron' was a viewing place actually on the hill (show from side view). Additionally, as prominent only in the theatre during the period in the fourth century B.C., a 'skene' is a 'scene building' which seems to have had a door (exactly how it appeared we are not sure). The word 'skene' actually means 'tent'.

TRAGEDY AND COMEDY - Different functions. How these categories have influenced the field. The Oresteia - tragedy in 3 parts. OEDIPUS REX [the king] (Sophocles) will be the play we'll be workshopping next week. Euripides - THE BACCHAE, Aristophones - THE FROG. HECUBA, TROJAN WOMEN, HELEN - Euripedes.

MASKS - Communicates important information about the character. Performer couldn't communicate with face, so gestures, dance, music and primarily words were used to communicate the message of the performance. For comedy, masks were intended to parody individuals and exaggerated certain aspects of their face.

COSTUMES - were changed during performance, such as Helen in Euripedes tragedy which has her return to the 'skene' wearing a different costume to demonstrate mourning. The elaborate weaving or dieing of material for mythical characters was considered to have taken place, as part of the ritual act. Costume was of great importance in helping the audience recognise the characters, as were their masks. Colour, length, type of clothing could have played roles in this respect.

PROPERTIES - abundant in comedies to achieve particular tasks.

CHORUS - important ancient Greek theatrical tool which we generally do not see now, but which has influenced theatrical writers and directors in the west. They are not involved in the play but comment upon it. Origin is considered to be related closely to the ritual function; the chorus existed before the drama did to sing songs to the gods and perform ritual tasks or acts (for example, dancing). Their importance cannot be underestimated.

ACTORS - the writer of the plays were initially the actors. Greek name for actor is hypocrites which means 'answerer'; probably to 'answer' the chorus. This changed and other actors were introduced, some of whom were other playwrights, until the position of the actor became evident as an independent profession.

 

 

P2-1

 

Tutorial Based on the subject matter: what is theatre and what is a play?

 

THEATRE CONVENTIONS

-4  How have the students experienced theatre in the past.

-5  Statement: theatre as a strange ritual [based on agreement between audience and performers] - what do the students think of this?

-6  How do the students experience Western theatre in terms of their own experiences.

-7  What are contrasting 'agreements' on what is theatre and what is not?

-8  Theatre includes many other forms of human activity, including juggling, acrobatics, some kinds of sports, music, mime and so on.

 

P2-2

 

THEATRE IN SOCIETY

-9  What role does theatre play in society?

-10 Is it different now to what it was in the past?

 

P2-3

 

WHY DO WE CREATE THEATRE?

-11 What are some of the major reasons people write plays?

-12 Function of art & theatre; clarifying order & chaos, making sense of disorder & inconsequential events of life.

 

P2-4

 

TERMINOLOGY

-13 What is the difference between theatre and drama, between a performance and a play?

-14 What is the difference between a playwright and a director? What do they do? What is their input.

-15 What is in effect the creative difference between a writer of novels or poems and the writers of plays? Who plays roles in giving the text meaning? Do texts really belong only to playwrights?

-16 What role does the 'audience' play? Who are they? Are they always the same in all forms of theatre? Are they also bound by conventions?

 

P3-1

 

What is a Workshop?

 

- What is a workshop? Which theatre schools have used it; how it can help us to understand theatre which is a highly visual medium. What it can teach us about performance.

- Concept introduced by Brecht and adopted into Western theatre, particularly experimental theatre.

 

P3-2

 

Basic Improvisations

 

- Basing scriptwriting on short activities. Divide up into groups of two and organise short scenes only with a brief encounter between two people.

 

P3-3

 

What can we learn from Workshops?

 

 


Play Reading Skills

 

- Difference between reading a text and watching one: you can`t (normally) rewind, full forward etc.; you have to go at the pace of the performance.

- It is impossible to mistake a theatrical text for any other.

- One has to consider how the audience is treated by the playwright; what were the conventions behind the theatrical traditions which created these works.

- What are the dynamics of plays; how are they structured.

- Importance of visualisation in interpretation.

- Contrasting types of plays in the twentieth century: television and radio plays.

- Film versions of plays; how does this contrast.

- Using scene descriptions to construct an image of what happens in the play (use examples)

PLOT: summary of a play`s incidents OR organisation of meaningful events, i.e. Overall structure of play.

Structural elements: the beginning, middle, end; exposition - setting forth of info about earlier ev ents/motivations - the amount of exposition required depends on the POINT OF ATTACK, the moment at which the action begins. Shakespeare typically uses early points of attack, i.e. the action is chronological.  This is not necessarily always so.  Greek tragedies use late points of attack.

- The action of a play depends on our knowledge of the past and thus a lot of exposition is required; methods of exposition vary immensely - Euripedes uses monologues, discussionofthe past, dance and song, and also flashbacks.

INCITING INCIDENCE - name for the CAUSE around which complications develop.

- The substance of complications is ften DISCOVERY in some form. Such discoveries may involve objects, persons, facts or values. Other means may be used to precipitate action - natural/mechanical disaster. Series of complications result in CLIMAX.  Analysis of drama: working out which kinds of units are used to develop drama and how these help the work to realize is theme or develop its suspense, catharsis and resolution.

The End - also known as resolution and denoument.

- The `ideal play`

The mode of discourse which is traditionally agreed upon and accepted by a western audience

It has 3 or 4 acts

- Introduces a set of human characters with a conflict

- This conflict brings about complications.

-These complications are resolved in a denouement (resolution)

Analysing the structure of a play:

1. How is the exposition handled.

2. Discover how scenes and acts are brought to climaxes in comparison to the whole.

3. Think about the manner and the nature of the plot (denoument)

[Hedda Gabler and The Cherry Garden are good examples of ideal plays for this type of analysis]

-Audience theory: compare the difference between the role played by the `reader` and the `viewer` (audience member: audience theory)

- Language use -soliloquy, grand speeches and garbled nonsense.  What is the playwright communicating with the WAY he is making use of language? Does it communicate extra-linguistically (such as Lucky`s speech).

- Space: the unwritten/partly transcribed thing separating performance etc. What does the use of specified space tell us about the play? What can be left to interpretation?

- How does the playwright treat temporality? Why? Is it being used as a tool to aid the narrative or character development, or in some other way.

- How does the play resemble reality, and when does it not? Why?

- Work out how to divide text into scenes and acts.

- Drama is a special form with own unique characteristics separating it from other forms of literature.  `Theatre is the stuyd of what happens when `dramatic` texts are brought to life.  Dramatic texts are difficult to read, and it becomes a demanding task for any reader, because of the amount of creativity required from the reader

 

WORKSHOP

Play reading skills; contrasts between different types of plays

- Using scene descriptions to construct an image of what happens in the play (use examples)


The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

LECTURE NOTES: lesson 2

                                                                             

 

Ancient Greek theatre has greatly influenced our contemporary understanding of drama and theatrical practice; it is now considered by many to be the source of Western theatre.

 

All the plays we have today were written in the period between 500 and 400 B.C.

 

They were usually written for two major rituals known as the 'City Dionysus' and the 'Lenaea'.

 

The work of 4 playwrights have survived: Sophocles, Euripides, Aeschylus, & Aristophanes.

 

Two major genres required by the rituals: TRAGEDY and COMEDY.

 

MASKS were very important theatrical tools in this form of theatre.  Actors couldn't communicate with their faces, and so used other forms of communication.

 

The CHORUS was important in commenting upon the action and providing song and dance for the plays.

 

 

The stage was divided into three major areas, the THEATRON, the ORCHESTRA and the SKENE.
The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: Ancient Greek Theatre

                                                                             

 

 

1. What does Aristotle consider the main aim of art to be?  Do you agree with this?

 

2.  What does Aristotle consider to be the origins of art?

 

3.  What does Aristotle consider to be the major emotions associated with tragedy?  Do you still think this is true?

 

4.  How does Aristotle think the Chorus should be treated in drama?  Do we treat them in the same way now?

 

5.  What themes do you think Aristotle discusses that are still important today?

 

6.  Describe your emotions at the end of the play. Are you sorry for Oedipus or do you think he got what he ultimately deserved?

 

 

 

ESSAY TOPICS: Sophocles' Oedipus the King

                                                                              

 

1. Does the major theme of the play involve 'luck' or 'destiny'?  Why?

 

2.  Is Oedipus the King still relevant today?  Explain why.

 

3.  How does the play represent human behaviour: as futile or useful?

 

4.  What is the function of the dramatic odes dividing the scenes? Are they there to further the action or provide interludes?

 

 

 

 


 

The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

LECTURER'S NOTES: Lesson 4 - writing about theatre

                                                                             

 

P1-1

 

Topic 1: Referencing System

- Difference between reading a text and watching one: you can`t (normally) rewind, full forward etc.; you have to go at the pace of the performance.

- It is impossible to mistake a theatrical text for any other.

- One has to consider how the audience is treated by the playwright; what were the conventions behind the theatrical traditions which created these works.

- What are the dynamics of plays; how are they structured.

- Importance of visualisation in interpretation.

- Contrasting types of plays in the twentieth century: television and radio plays.

- Film versions of plays; how does this contrast.

- Using scene descriptions to construct an image of what happens in the play (use examples)

 

P1-2

 

To reiterate - the ideal play:

- Introduces a set of human characters with a conflict

- This conflict brings about complications.

- These complications are resolved in a denouement (resolution)

Analysing the structure of a play:

1. How is the exposition handled.

2. Discover how scenes and acts are brought to climaxes in comparison to the whole.

3. Think about the manner and the nature of the plot (denoument)

[Hedda Gabler and The Cherry Garden are good examples of ideal plays for this type of analysis]

THINGS TO WRITE ABOUT IN THEATRE & DRAMA

- Language use -soliloquy, grand speeches and garbled nonsense.  What is the playwright communicating with the WAY he is making use of language? Does it communicate extra-linguistically (such as Lucky`s speech).

- Space: the unwritten/partly transcribed thing separating performance etc. What does the use of specified space tell us about the play? What can be left to interpretation?

- How does the playwright treat temporality? Why? Is it being used as a tool to aid the narrative or character development, or in some other way.

- How does the play resemble reality, and when does it not? Why?

 

P1-3

ANALYSING KEY SPEECHES

- Analysis of specificities of key speeches from Ancient Greekto modern theatre.

- Such speeches often embody major themes of theatre works.

- Following steps can be followed:

1. What theme does the speech embody.

2. What are particular characteristics of the language unique to the character.

3. Examine the purpose for which the language is used.

4. Examine what the language use communicates about the character, i.e. regional specificity, attitude of speaker to person being spoken to, jargon used, discoursal levels of communication etc.

5. Is there anything brought to life about the plot or narrative of the drama.

 

 

P1-4

- As a reaction to Roman excess, the Christiann church had long opposed theatrical entertainment, also related to its concept of the creation of 'falsehood' which stood against Christian concepts; how this is represented in the 'acting' or 'taking of a part of another' which is a blatant lie against God. Participation in drama was truly for 'pagans', particularly any form of transvestitism: "The woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman's garment; for alll that do so are abomination unto the Lord God" (Deuteronomy 22.5).

- Despite this reaction against the theatre, it was in the church itself that a new concept of theatre was born, what is now referred to as 'liturgical drama'.

- Define liturgy, including singing of the mass which involves ritualised processes such as drinking of wine as blood and the breaking of bread (flesh).

- Some liturgical chants divided antiphonally, that is one set of voices responding to another (reminiscent of Ancient Greek drama). In the Easter Mass, one voice (an angel) responds to the women who visited Christ's tomb in order to anoint the corpose.  The angel asks whom they seek, they reply that they seek Jesus and the angel expoains that Jesus has risen from the tomb. This is a first step towards the representation of drama.

- It became a means to educate the illiterate, hence the term 'morality plays'.

- Long after such dramatic texts were included in the liturgy, Pope Clement V in 1311 created a new Feast Day, Corpus Christi (Latin: the body of Christ). It became a joyful midsummer midsummer festival, marked by a procession in which the communion chalice, escorted by local dignitaries, was carried through the streets.

- Plays soon became part of the Feast of Corpus Christi. In Italy in the early 14th century Corpus Christi Day was celebrated by an almost cosmic cycle of plays (definition of 'cycles' and how they worked' on sacred history, in Latin, ranging from the Fall of Lucifer, the Crucifixion of Christ, the Harrowing of Hell, Christ's Ascension, and up to the Day of Judgment.

- By the end of 14th century, plays were not only in Latin but in vernacular, sponsored not only by church but other organisations.

- Guilds sponsoring plays seemed appriopriote; thus, the shipwrights were responsible for th play about Noah's Ark, the bakers for the Last Supper, and so on.

- Scholars refer to the individual episodes as miracle plays or 'mystery plays' because they were sponsored by the guilds (mystery taken from French word 'metier' which means job, from the Latin word minister which means attendant or servant).

- Development of plays: 2 scholarly views: 19th and 20th century, as a natural evolution from the Quem Queritis of the Easter Feast in the church until it moved out of the church into the church yard, recent scholarship which suggests that it was a single definitive movement as an effort to educate people.

- In England four major 'cycles' of mystery plays were in existence, performed at a number of different locations:York, Wakefield, Chester and some other locations which no longer exist or are indefinite.

- They were abandoned not because of disinterest of public, but because [1] Protestantism was against the idea of drama, and [2] better forms of dramatic entertainment were becoming available.

- Performance Environment: on temporary stages or on wagons (hence the term 'pageants'). Audience would move from one wagon to another. Some performances in this way were thought to be portable and could be brought to different locations. Evidence of performance 'in the round' in the coliseums left over from Ancient Rome, falling otherwise into disuse, where they were only used a stamping ground rather than a theatre, audience within the centre rather outside of it. Wagons would display separate scenes, such as hell or the cave where Jesus was resurrected. A structure representing hell may be at one side, and heavan at the other (hell demonstrated as the mouth of a monster out of which smoke would pour). There is the evidence that some actors left the stages and moved into the performance spae and among the audience. Performance's were closer to today's 'street theatre'.

The anonymous author of the WAKE FIELD CYCLE (which a total of 32 plays) is called the Wakefield Master. Thought to be a clergyman actively involved in theatre. Probably originated in 14th century, but was later revised and amplified.  The play we look at known as 'the second shepherds' play'. Second of 2 plays about the shephers who received the news of the birth of Jesus, as told in the second chapter of the Gospel according to Saint Luke. The complete cycle involves the life of Jesus.

- Note about translations of the words.

 

P2-1

 

- Tutorial Based on reading of works by Sophocles and Aristotle

.

1. What does Aristotle consider the main aim of art to be?  Do you agree with this?

 

2.  What does Aristotle consider to be the origins of art?

 

3.  What does Aristotle consider to be the major emotions associated with tragedy?  Do you still think this is true?

 

4.  How does Aristotle think the Chorus should be treated in drama?  Do we treat them in the same way now?

 

5.  What themes do you think Aristotle discusses that are still important today?

 

6.  Describe your emotions at the end of the play. Are you sorry for Oedipus or do you think he got what he ultimately deserved?

 

 

 

ESSAY TOPICS: Sophocles' Oedipus the King

                                                                                                                     

 

1. Does the major theme of the play involve 'luck' or 'destiny'?  Why?

 

2.  Is Oedipus the King still relevant today?  Explain why.

 

3.  How does the play represent human behaviour: as futile or useful?

 

4.  What is the function of the dramatic odes dividing the scenes? Are they there to further the action or provide interludes?

 

 

P2-2

 

THEATRE IN SOCIETY

-4  What role does theatre play in society?

-5  Is it different now to what it was in the past?

 

P2-3

 

WHY DO WE CREATE THEATRE?

-6  What are some of the major reasons people write plays?

-7  Function of art & theatre; clarifying order & chaos, making sense of disorder & inconsequential events of life.

 

P2-4

 

TERMINOLOGY

-8  What is the difference between theatre and drama, between a performance and a play?

-9  What is the difference between a playwright and a director? What do they do? What is their input.

-10 What is in effect the creative difference between a writer of novels or poems and the writers of plays? Who plays roles in giving the text meaning? Do texts really belong only to playwrights?

-11 What role does the 'audience' play? Who are they? Are they always the same in all forms of theatre? Are they also bound by conventions?

 

P3-1

 

Play-Reading: Sophocles play Oedipus the King

 

- Start with lines 1-149. Choose someone from the group to stand on a chair (Oedipus), two ther readers stand nearby (the Priest and Creon), and several others kneel or lie on the floor (Theban citizens).

- Afterwards ask readers how they felt about their roles


 The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

LECTURE NOTES: lesson 3 - mediaeval theatre

                                                                             

 

Mediaeval theatre contrasts greatly to any form of theatre that appeared before or after it.

 

The term 'mediaeval' actually refers in Latin to the Middle-Ages which is another English term for the period; also referred to the dark ages because of the black plague.

 

World View: the world was a destructive, violent and unpredictable place. People generally preferred to stay inside than to go outside. Faith in god was their only hold on security. The Latin mass was an important ceremony.

 

It is generally thought that theatre in the Middle Ages grew out of the Quem Quiritis antiphon sung during the Easter mass which involved a dramatic dialogue between the women visiting Christ's tomb and the angel of the lord.

 

Two major theories as to how the 'mystery cycles' developed:

[1] gradual transferral from its use in the Latin mass to its use in pageant wagons as the cycle plays (19th century approach);

[2] a direct attempt by the guilds and other organisations to make religious material accessible to the illiterate (recent approach).

 

The 'cycles' are referred to by scholars as 'morality plays' as they depicted very specific moral lessons from the bible, particularly the life of Jesus Christ.

 

The plays that we have today were enacted on wagons or small temporary stages. Each of these wagons represented a different location, for example when the wagons were situation in a circle, 'heaven' and 'hell' would often be positioned opposite to one another. Other locations included the place where Jesus was crucified, Noah's ark and other biblical locations.

 


The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: Mediaeval Theatre

                                                                             

 

 

1. The play presents two scenes of nativity.  What details bind the two scenes together?

 

2. Exactly why to the shepherds return to Mak's house?  What might one say the moral is for this part of the play?

 

3. The medieval punishment for stealing sheep was death, but the shepherd's punish Mak only by tossing him in a blankent.  Why does the play depart from reality in this respect.

 

 

 

ESSAY TOPICS:

                                                                             

 

1. How does medieval theatre differ from theatre in the twentieth century?

 

2. What are the particular methods used in medieval drama to communicate the morals?

 

3.  How do you think the audience would have appreciated drama at the time of its writing?

 

 

 

 


 

The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

LECTURER'S NOTES: Lesson 4 - writing about theatre

                                                                             

 

P1-1

 

Topic 1: Referencing System

- Difference between reading a text and watching one: you can`t (normally) rewind, full forward etc.; you have to go at the pace of the performance.

- It is impossible to mistake a theatrical text for any other.

- One has to consider how the audience is treated by the playwright; what were the conventions behind the theatrical traditions which created these works.

- What are the dynamics of plays; how are they structured.

- Importance of visualisation in interpretation.

- Contrasting types of plays in the twentieth century: television and radio plays.

- Film versions of plays; how does this contrast.

- Using scene descriptions to construct an image of what happens in the play (use examples)

 

P1-2

 

To reiterate - the ideal play:

- Introduces a set of human characters with a conflict

- This conflict brings about complications.

- These complications are resolved in a denouement (resolution)

Analysing the structure of a play:

1. How is the exposition handled.

2. Discover how scenes and acts are brought to climaxes in comparison to the whole.

3. Think about the manner and the nature of the plot (denoument)

[Hedda Gabler and The Cherry Garden are good examples of ideal plays for this type of analysis]

THINGS TO WRITE ABOUT IN THEATRE & DRAMA

- Language use -soliloquy, grand speeches and garbled nonsense.  What is the playwright communicating with the WAY he is making use of language? Does it communicate extra-linguistically (such as Lucky`s speech).

- Space: the unwritten/partly transcribed thing separating performance etc. What does the use of specified space tell us about the play? What can be left to interpretation?

- How does the playwright treat temporality? Why? Is it being used as a tool to aid the narrative or character development, or in some other way.

- How does the play resemble reality, and when does it not? Why?

INCLUDE PARTICULARLY THE USE OF SYMBOLISM AND HOW TO WRITE ABOUT IT

Use as an example the many symbols in Streetcar:  there is something about here that suggests a moth, trams cemeteries and desire, the name 'belleve reve', the role of music etc.

 

P1-3

ANALYSING KEY SPEECHES

- Analysis of specificities of key speeches from Ancient Greekto modern theatre.

- Such speeches often embody major themes of theatre works.

- Following steps can be followed:

1. What theme does the speech embody.

2. What are particular characteristics of the language unique to the character.

3. Examine the purpose for which the language is used.

4. Examine what the language use communicates about the character, i.e. regional specificity, attitude of speaker to person being spoken to, jargon used, discoursal levels of communication etc.

5. Is there anything brought to life about the plot or narrative of the drama.

 

 

P1-4

USING DIALOGUE/SPEECHES

- demonstrate how to use particular speech examples to demonstrate thematic concepts etc.

 

P2-1

 

TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: Mediaeval Theatre

                                                                                                                     

 

 

1. The play presents two scenes of nativity.  What details bind the two scenes together?

 

2. Exactly why to the shepherds return to Mak's house?  What might one say the moral is for this part of the play?

 

3. The medieval punishment for stealing sheep was death, but the shepherd's punish Mak only by tossing him in a blanket.  Why does the play depart from reality in this respect?

 

 

 

ESSAY TOPICS:

                                                                                                                     

 

1. How does medieval theatre differ from theatre in the twentieth century?

 

2. What are the particular methods used in medieval drama to communicate the morals?

 

3.  How do you think the audience would have appreciated drama at the time of its writing?

 

 

 

P3-1

 

Play-Reading: Second Shepherd cycle

 


The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

LECTURE NOTES: lesson 4 - writing about theatre

                                                                             

 

PLAGIARIZATION in any form is absolutely unacceptable in this course. You have to write everything with your own writing; downloading from the internet is not good enough. You can use books, articles and excerpts from the plays themselves, but you have to use the following REFERENCING SYSTEM to show where you have taken the references.

[1] All references from books/articles need to be between inverted commas, i.e. According to Walsh, "the play was difficult to read."

[2] At the end of the reference, you need to include the following information: (Author YEAR: page number). An example is as follows: The play was indeed "a terrible mistake" (Roberts 1979: 23). If, however, you include the name of the author in the sentence, you don't need to repeat the name.  An example is as follows: Roberts informs us that the play was "a terrible mistake (1979: 23).

[3] At the end of the article/paper you have to have a complete list of references. These references need to be detailed and printed out as follows, with the names of the authors in alphabetical order:

(for books/plays)

Williams, Robert (1999) Ibsen: the truth, London, Simon & Simon.

(for articles)

Smith, Margaret (1987) "The true hero", in The Contemporary Playwright, New York, Walters Firm: 75-99.


The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: Reading Character and Symbolism

                                                                             

 

 

1. Find a key speech and make a basic analysis, with a number of points you think it communicates to the audience.

 

2. What do you think Stanley feels about Blanche?

 

3.  Find some other moments where you think particularly striking messages are communicated about the characters by things they say or do.  Indicate how you would you use these in a written work describing them.

 

4.  Look at this exchange (lines 307-8)

BLANCHE: Is he so - different?

STELLA: Yes. A different species.

What do you think Stella means by this.

 

5.  Why does Stella warn Blance not to compare him with men they went out with at home.

 

6.  Find some 'symbols' in this fragment that are expressed in vocalisations. There are many. Indicate how you would use these in a written work with these as a basis for the argument, or why they would be used.

 

 

 

 


 

The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

LECTURER'S NOTES: Lesson 5 – Shakespeare and his age

                                                                             

 

P1-1

 

Topic 1: Origin of Renaissance drama

-          The theatre for which the plays were written was one of the most remarkable innovations of the Renaissace. As we have demonstrated, there were no theatres in the Middle-Ages, and the plays were all of a religious nature.

-          All This began to change during Shakespeare’s era.  Students of Oxford and Cambridge came to London in 1580s and began to write plays which made use of what they had learned about classical drama of ancient Greece and Rome (compare to the church’s negative approach to this type of performance).

-          These plays were on historical subjects with non-rhymed verse (iambic pentameter); this was freer and more expressive than medieval drama.

-          These dramatists, of which Shakespeare was to become a member, wrote for professional troupes of actors; this was something new and an art had been invented

 

P1-2

 

Topic 2: The Elizabethan stage

-          The most well-known performance space of the time and which we look back to is the well-known globe theatre that was reproduced in 1996 in London.

-          It is quite different still to the type of theatre we view today, for many reasons and in comparison to many different forms of theatre.

-          Elizabethan theatre derived from the inn yards and animal-baiting rings in which actors had been accustomed to perform in the past.  They were circular wooden buildings with a paved couryard in the middle open to the sky.  A rectangular stage jutted out into the middle of this yard.  Much of the audience stood in the ‘yard’ or ‘pit’ to watch the play.  They were thus on three sides of the stage.

-          These ‘groundlings’ paid only a penny to get in, but for wealthir spectators there were seats in three covered tiers or galleries between the inner and outer walls of the building, extending round most of the auditorium and overlooking pit and the stage.  Such a theatre culd hold about 3,0000 spectators.

-          The stage itself was partially covered by a roof or canopy which projected from the wall at the rear of the stage and was supported b two posts at th front.  This protected the stage and performers from inclement weather, and to it were secured winches and other machinery for stage effects.  On either side at the back of the stage was a door.  These led into the dres room (or ‘tiring house’) and it was by means of these doors that actors entered and left the stage.

-          Between these doors was a small recess or alcove which was curtained off.  Such a ‘discovery place’ served, for example, for Juliet’s bedroom when in Act IV Scene 4 of Romeo and Juliet the Nurse went to the back of the stage and drew the curtain to find or ‘discover’ in Eliabethan English (relate to ‘discovery’ in dramatic terminology), Juliet apparently dead on her bed.

-          In Elizabethan theatre, women were played by men or boys; this was a standard convention.

-          On these stages there was very little scenery or props – there was nowhere to store them (there were no wings in this theatre) nor anyway to set them up (no curtain)

 

P1-3

Topic 3: Actors and the plays

-          The stage was bare, which is why characters often tell us where they are: there was nothing on the stage to indicate locatin.

-          This also explains why symbolism rather than typography is so important in this type of drama.

-          Knowledge considered to be second nature, what we can no longer assume about today’s audience.

-          Shakespeare wrote his theatre for these actors and for this particular theatre.

 

 

P1-4

Topic 4: The Tempest    

-          This is a quite unique later play (his last) which is rich in symbolism both within the play and towards the life of Shakespeare himself who is often compared to Prospero, a man at the end of his carreer.

-          Discuss its factual basis in contemporary myth/colonialism at the time of its writing.

-          Describe the major characters and their roles within the play.

-          His language is rich in imagery and beauty. Seek out passages that you may not understand completely, but find beautiful for us to discuss. Consider what you think they might mean.

-          Introduce the basic themes of the play.

 

 

P2-1

 

TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: Mediaeval Theatre

                                                                                                                     

 

 

1. The play presents two scenes of nativity.  What details bind the two scenes together?

 

2. Exactly why to the shepherds return to Mak's house?  What might one say the moral is for this part of the play?

 

3. The medieval punishment for stealing sheep was death, but the shepherd's punish Mak only by tossing him in a blanket.  Why does the play depart from reality in this respect?

 

 

 

ESSAY TOPICS:

                                                                                                                     

 

1. How does medieval theatre differ from theatre in the twentieth century?

 

2. What are the particular methods used in medieval drama to communicate the morals?

 

3.  How do you think the audience would have appreciated drama at the time of its writing?

 

 

 

P3-1

 

Play-Reading: Second Shepherd cycle

 


The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

LECTURE NOTES: lesson 4 - writing about theatre

                                                                             

 

PLAGIARIZATION in any form is absolutely unacceptable in this course. You have to write everything with your own writing; downloading from the internet is not good enough. You can use books, articles and excerpts from the plays themselves, but you have to use the following REFERENCING SYSTEM to show where you have taken the references.

[1] All references from books/articles need to be between inverted commas, i.e. According to Walsh, "the play was difficult to read."

[2] At the end of the reference, you need to include the following information: (Author YEAR: page number). An example is as follows: The play was indeed "a terrible mistake" (Roberts 1979: 23). If, however, you include the name of the author in the sentence, you don't need to repeat the name.  An example is as follows: Roberts informs us that the play was "a terrible mistake (1979: 23).

[3] At the end of the article/paper you have to have a complete list of references. These references need to be detailed and printed out as follows, with the names of the authors in alphabetical order:

(for books/plays)

Williams, Robert (1999) Ibsen: the truth, London, Simon & Simon.

(for articles)

Smith, Margaret (1987) "The true hero", in The Contemporary Playwright, New York, Walters Firm: 75-99.


The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: Reading Character and Symbolism

                                                                             

 

 

1. Find a key speech and make a basic analysis, with a number of points you think it communicates to the audience.

 

2. What do you think Stanley feels about Blanche?

 

3.  Find some other moments where you think particularly striking messages are communicated about the characters by things they say or do.  Indicate how you would you use these in a written work describing them.

 

4.  Look at this exchange (lines 307-8)

BLANCHE: Is he so - different?

STELLA: Yes. A different species.

What do you think Stella means by this.

 

5.  Why does Stella warn Blance not to compare him with men they went out with at home.

 

6.  Find some 'symbols' in this fragment that are expressed in vocalisations. There are many. Indicate how you would use these in a written work with these as a basis for the argument, or why they would be used.

 

 

 

 


The English Department

Chinese Culture University [Extension]

Western Theatre & Performance

 

designed by Zachar Laskewicz for students with English as a foreign language

 

INTERIM TEST FOR STUDENTS

                                                                             

 

Student English Name:                                                      

Student Chinese Name:                                                    

Student Number:                                                                

 

 

1.         Ancient Greek plays were written between which years?

[A]       600-500 B.C.

[B]       500-400 B.C.

[C]       400-300 B.C.

[D]       300-200 B.C.

 

 

2.         What was the name of the ritual most plays were written for

[A]       City Athena

[B]       Lenaeus

[C]       City Dionysis

[D]       Apollo Ritual

 

 

3.         Who was the major writer of comedies in Ancient Greek theatre?

[A]       Sophocles

[B]       Plautus

[C]       Euripides

[D]       Aristophones

 

 

4.         Where did the audience sit in an Ancient Greek performance?

[A]       Theatron

[B]       Skene

[C]       Proscenium Arch

[D]       Chorus

 

5.         Who wrote the well known tragedy Oedipus Rex?

[A]       Euripides

[B]       Sophocles

[C]       Aristophones

[D]       Plautus

 

6.         What was the name of the first performance in the Middle-Ages?

[A]       The Easter Mass

[B]       Quem Queritis

[C]       Agnus Dei

[D]       The Shepherd’s Play

 

7.         Why was this work composed?

[A]       The Easter Mass

[B]       For the Shepherd’s Play

[C]       For pageant wagons

[D]       For the guilds

 

8.         In what type of theatre were performances made during the Middle-Ages?

[A]       Pageant Wagons

[B]       Theatron

[C]       Melodrama

[D]       Proscenium Arch

 

9.         Who were responsible for financing these plays?

[A]       The Church

[B]       The Guilds

[C]       The Royalty

[D]       The Middle-Class

 

10.      Why were they known as ‘mystery plays’?

[A]       Because they were mysterious

[B]       Relates to the French word for ‘profession’

[C]       The subject matter was religious

[D]       The plays were frightening

 

11.      Who encouraged the creation of theatre during the English Renaissance?

[A]       Students from Oxford and Cambridge

[B]       Shakespeare

[C]       Marlowe

[D]       The Guilds

 

12.      What is the name of the verse form used by Shakespeare?

[A]       Poetry

[B]       Screenplay

[C]       Dramatic Text

[D]       Iambic Pentameter

 

13.      What was the name of the first theatre established in London?

[A]       World Theatre

[B]       London Theatre

[C]       International Theatre

[D]       Globe Theatre

 

14.      What was unique about actors during Shakespeare’s time?

[A]       They were very good

[B]       Only rich people could participate

[C]       Female roles were taken by boys

[D]       The actors had professional training

 

 

 

 

15.      About how many people could an Elizabethan theatre hold?

[A]       2000

[B]       3000

[C]       4000

[D]       5000

 

16.      Who stopped theatre production at the end of the Elizabethan age?

[A]       Charles I

[B]       The Middle Class

[C]       Charles II

[D]       The Puritans

 

17.      Who was famous for bringing back theatre to England?

[A]       Charles I

[B]       The Middle Class

[C]       Charles II

[D]       The Puritans

 

18.      What was the name of the plays written during this period

[A]       Restoration

[B]       Drama

[C]       Theatre

[D]       Screenplay

 

19.      What type of people went to these plays?

[A]       The middle class

[B]       Upper-class and royalty

[C]       The lower class

[D]       Friends of Charles II

 

 

 

 

 

20.      In the century following the restoration era what was the main type of theatre?

[A]       Opera

[B]       Melodrama

[C]       Music-Theatre

[D]       Shakespeare

 

21.      What is the name of the important Swedish playwright who pioneered developments in modern drama?

[A]       Henrik Ibsen

[B]       Anton Chekhov

[C]       William Shakespeare

[D]       August Strinberg

 

22.      What type of audience saw these plays?

[A]       Upper class

[B]       Middle class

[C]       Low class

[D]       Rich people

 

23.      What was the name of the movement headed by playwrights such as Ibsen and Chekhov?

[A]       Social Realism

[B]       Melodrama

[C]       Naturalism

[D]       Dramatic Text

 


24.      What famous Russian was responsible for developing a school of actors?

[A]       Stanislavski

[B]       Mayakovski

[C]       Chekhov

[D]       Gorbachov

 

25.      What was the name of the Russian theatre used by Chekhov and his actors?

[A]       Siberian Arts Collective

[B]       The Globe

[C]       Moscow Arts Theatre

[D]       Leningrad Arts Theatre